With certain water parameters, an essential aspect of effective contaminant removal is pre-treatment of the raw water before reaching the primary system. This is true whether the application is for potable water, commercial, industrial or environmental usage. Without a proper understanding of the water chemistry and parameters that affect system performance—whether it is a media or membrane system—high operational costs or non-performance will result.

Pre-treatment can be simple mechanical filtration for suspended solids, coagulation or dispersant chemical addition, chlorine or other oxidation chemical addition or removal, and/or removal of organics or other contaminants that can foul or otherwise diminish system performance and require costly operation and maintenance.

Chemical Dosing stations

A chemical dosing system is a facility for automated injection of reagents into a wastewater network for the control of septicity and odour emissions. These systems are typically used at pump stations, sewer manholes, and rising mains.


Primary clarifiers are located downstream of the plant’s screening and grit chambers to separate settleable solids from the raw wastewater influent, while secondary clarifiers are constructed downstream of the biological treatment or activated sludge facility to separate the treated wastewater from the biological mass

Physical Chemical Treatment

Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater is not only descriptive but is also analytical in nature. The work covers the physical unit operations and unit processes utilized in the treatment of water and wastewater. Its organization is designed to match the major processes and its approach is mathematical.

Filter Press & Sludge Dewatering

A filter press (FP) provides sludge dewatering by pressing the sludge between a series of porous plates. The process forces water from the sludge by applying high pressures to sludge layers held between a series of 20−80 rectangular plates. The plates are recessed to allow them to be filled with sludge, and a filter cloth with an effective pore size of less than 0.1 mm fitted to each.

Odor Control Units

Odor generated from wastewater systems is from hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is released in the form of a gas. In addition, hydrogen sulfide can lead to corrosion in collection systems and wastewater plants, leading to dangerous leaks.

CIP Systems

CIP systems have a vital role in processing because of the need to keep processing components free of bacteria.





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